In an interview conducted during the 2021 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, Alison Birtle, MD, consultant clinical oncologist and honorary clinical senior lecturer at Lancashire Teaching Hospitals, Preston, UK, discusses updated results from the randomized, phase 3 POUT trial, which was designed to assess perioperative chemotherapy vs surveillance in 261 patients with upper tract urothelial cancer who had undergone nephroureterectomy. After 30.3 months of follow-up, previous results demonstrated that adjuvant chemotherapy led to improved disease-free survival; this benefit was maintained after a median follow-up of 48.1 months. Overall survival was 79% for patients receiving gemcitabine-carboplatin and 67% for patients undergoing surveillance.