This is a comprehensive overview of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML), a rare type of cancer affecting bone marrow and blood cell development. Arpan Parichha, MD discusses the disease’s pathophysiology, symptoms like fatigue and abdominal fullness, and the pivotal role of genetic factors, including the Philadelphia chromosome translocation. Parichha delves into diagnostic methods, such as PCR and blood smears, and effective treatments like tyrosine kinase inhibitors, emphasizing the importance of early detection and targeted therapy in managing CML.