Hepatitis C (HCV) infects an estimated 150 million people worldwide. It has proven to be a major cause of concern for medical professionals since it can also lead to liver cancer and cirrhosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be the second leading cause of cancer mortality globally. It has been found that most patients who have been diagnosed with HCC also have an underlying chronic liver disease, which often times, leads to cirrhosis.

However, while there have been regional differences in the association of HCC and HCV, the two are commonly found to coexist in industrialized countries. In fact, there has been a notable increase in the amount of cases of HCC incidences in industrialized countries over the past few decades. HCV-related HCC is, at present, a serious health concern in many countries throughout the worldwide.

Hepatocellular carcinoma can be diagnosed in various stages of treatment. Patients who are undergoing the appropriate screening due to the presence of HCV usually tend to have HCC found earlier in their treatment. Unfortunately, not all patients undergo routine surveillance during their treatment.