A recent study shows that malignant high-grade PINs have a greater expression of PTOV1 (prostate tumor overexpressed-1) compared with benign lesions, and as expression of PTOV1 decreased, so did the risk of malignant transformation.

References and Resources
Morote J, Fernandez S, Alana L, et al. PTOV1 Expression Predicts Prostate Cancer in Men with Isolated High-Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Needle Biopsy. Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14: 2617-2622.

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