A pilot study showing improved outcomes for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients who were treated with immune checkpoint therapy after surgery, as compared with just immune checkpoint therapy, has set the groundwork for further studies. This study suggested that systemic immune therapies could be used safely following kidney removal. Robert Dreicer, MD, deputy director of the University of Virginia Cancer Center, says the next step will likely be a similar study with ipilimumab and nivolumab as the immune checkpoint inhibitor.

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