A treatment is undergoing development in hopes to receive FDA clearance to be the first drug targeted at the third- and fourth-line space in patients with refractory renal cell carcinoma (RCC). As reported in The Lancet Oncology, third- or fourth-line tivozanib improved progression-free survival and was better tolerated than sorafenib. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly longer with tivozanib in this study.

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