In an interview conducted during the 2021 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, Petros Grivas, MD, PhD, a physician at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, associate professor at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and clinical director of the Genitourinary Cancers Program at the University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, discusses results from a study presented at ASCO GU 2021 designed to compare the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced upper and lower tract urothelial carcinoma. Following therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors, responses and outcomes were similar regardless of primary tumor location. The only differences observed were in patients with mixed-histology upper vs lower tract urothelial carcinoma. Dr Grivas noted that ongoing research will help elucidate the genomic differences between upper and lower tract urothelial carcinoma, resulting in improved outcomes for patients.