Francis Spinale, MD, PhD, at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, goes over his research on new techniques for detecting heart remodeling in early heart failure by measuring plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinases.

References and Resources
Noji, Y., et al. Increased circulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with systolic dysfunction. Circ J. 2004;68(4):355-360.

Ahmed, S., et al. Matrix metalloproteinases/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: relationship between changes in proteolytic determinants of matrix composition and structural, functional, and clinical manifestations of hypertensive heart failure. Circulation. 2006;113(17):2089-2096.

Iwanaga, Y., et al. Excessive activation of matrix metalloproteinases coincides with left ventricular remodeling during transition from hypertrophy to heart failure in hypertensive rats. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39(8):1384-1391.

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