Results from a study led by Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, BSc, a postdoctoral fellow at the John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, demonstrated that Moraxella catarrhalis, a respiratory pathogen known to cause otitis media and COPD, is able to activate immune sensors responsible for the detection of invasive bacteria. As a result, the immune system produces proteins designed to kill these bacteria. Overall, these results provide new molecular targets that may be leveraged for the mitigation of pathological inflammation triggered by Moraxella catarrhalis.